2009年6月22日星期一

感恩經與教外人士的關係(二)

若純粹按照先前的討論,則似乎不可能有甚麼進展。

然而,教會在梵二大公會議期間,亦曾就教外人士得救的可能性,作出過兩項重要的聲明--

首先,根據《教會憲章》(Lumen Gentium)第十六條的著明段落:
Qui enim Evangelium Christi Eiusque Ecclesiam sine culpa ignorantes, Deum tamen sincero corde quaerunt, Eiusque voluntatem per conscientiae dictamen agnitam, operibus adimplere, sub gratiae influxu, conantur, aeternam salutem consequi possunt. Nec divina Providentia auxilia ad salutem necessaria denegat his qui sine culpa ad expressam agnitionem Dei nondum pervenerunt et rectam vitam non sine divina gratia assequi nituntur.

原來那些非因自己的過失,而不知道基督的福音及其教會的人,卻誠心尋求天主,並按照良心的指示,在天主聖寵的感召下,實行天主的聖意,他們是可以得到永生的。還有一些人,非因自已的過失,尚未認識天主,卻不無天主聖寵而勉力度著正直的生活,天主上智也不會使他們缺少為得救必需的助佑。

在這裡,教會對一些非因己過而尚未認識天主、但又真誠地依照良心指引而生活的人,也可以得救。然而,會議亦同時聲明:他們的得救的因由,仍是基於天主恩寵的推動與助佑。誠然,天主的這種作為,在基督徒眼中往往是不明顯的。

另一篇章,則是在《教會傳教工作法令》(Ad Gentes)第七條:
Etsi ergo Deus viis sibi notis homines Evangelium sine eorum culpa ignorantes ad fidem adducere possit, sine qua impossibile est Ipsi placere, Ecclesiae tamen necessitas incumbit, simulque ius sacrum, evangelizandi, ac proinde missionalis activitas vim suam et necessitatem hodie sicut et semper integram servat.

所以,雖然天主有其獨自知道的方法,能夠引導那些非因自己的過失而不認識基督的人,得到為悅樂天主無可或缺的信德,可是宣傳福音仍是教會不可推卸的責任,同時也是神聖的權利。所以,傳教工作,在今天一如過去和將來,始終保持其全部的活力與需要。

由此我們可以得知,若某部份外教人最終得救,乃是因為天主的引領,使他們幸獲信德之恩。

梵二大公會議既然這麼訓導,則會議後所修訂的禮書,亦或多或少地反映出這種識見。

例如,現時羅馬禮慣常形式的感恩祭第二式:

Meménto étiam fratrum nostrórum, qui in spe resurrectiónis dormiérunt, omniúmque in tua miseratióne defunctórum, et eos in lumen vultus tui admítte.

求你垂念我們已亡的弟兄,他們懷著復活的希望而安息;並求你垂念所有去世的人,使他們享見你聖容的光輝。

現時中文版的禮儀,將「[memento ...] omniumque in tua miseratione defunctorum」譯成「求你垂念所有去世的人」。這使不少人得出教會為「所有」(不論是在煉獄或地獄中的)亡者祈禱、祈求天主使他們早日享見光輝聖容的錯覺。然實則教會禱詞的文字意義為:「並求你垂念所有『在你慈悲中』去世的人」,由是觀之,則受惠於教會此一轉禱的對象,應是身處煉獄中的外教人。最新的英語譯文,似乎已發現並糾正了此一訛誤。

又例如,感恩經第三式:
Fratres nostros defúnctos et omnes qui, tibi placéntes, ex hoc sæculo transiérunt, in regnum tuum benígnus admítte ...

求你恩准我們已亡的弟兄,和所有去世的善人,進入天國......

在這裡,中譯文用了「所有去世的善人」來統稱原文所指的「中悅天主而離世的所有人」,在神學上是正確的。

而在感恩經第四式中:
Nunc ergo, Dómine, ómnium recordáre, pro quibus tibi hanc oblatiónem offérimus: in primis fámuli tui, Papæ nostri N., Epíscopi nostri N., e Episcopórum órdinis univérsi, sed et totíus cleri, et offeréntium, et circumstántium, et cuncti pópuli tui, et ómnium, qui te quærunt corde síncero. Meménto étiam illórum, qui obiérunt in pace Christi tui, et ómnium defunctórum, quorum fidem tu solus cognovísti.

上主,現在我們向你奉獻這個聖祭,求你垂念我們的教宗(某)、我們的主教(某)、全體主教、所有聖職人員、求獻彌撒的人,和在場參禮的人,以及你的全體子民,和誠意尋求你的人。求你也垂念安息於基督的信眾;並垂念所有亡者--他們的信德只有你知道。

從這禱文中,我們聽見教會為在世間「誠意尋求天主」的人祈禱,亦為外教徒亡者祈禱--而他們的信德,只有「天曉得」了。

那麼,我們可否說,教會在彌撒中為亡者所獻的祈禱,只是為「被選者」(electi)而進行?而基於教外人士得救的「晦暗性」(obscurity),他們的名字仍不可在感恩經中,被直接述及。

10 則留言:

Calvin 說...

The pugatory is only for those who baptized.
During the celebration of mass, the priest says the mass for living and dead. The word "dead" means those who died in the state of grace.
It is impossible for those who has not been baptized to die in the state of grace since they are still bound by the Original Sin, we would never say someone who has died with Original Sin is in the state of grace.

Edward 說...

Calvin兄:

好久不見,最近可好?

原罪是一個「消極」概念。它本質上是指常恩(sanctifying grace/聖化恩寵)的「缺乏」--而這種缺乏亦同時是「遺傳」的。

在原罪中去世的人,當然不可能上天堂,因為他們缺乏聖化恩寵。

問題是在於:為達致聖化恩寵的境界,是否必須透過洗禮、而洗禮的這種必要性,又同時排拒了天主以其他方式施恩的可能性?

你會如何看梵二的上述兩項教導?

Calvin 說...

Dear Edward,

I am fine. :)
I will be having the last subject of the final examination tomorrow, please pray for me.

There is no orginal grace. If there was any original grace, it would have been destroyed by the original sin.

In order to go to heaven, I believe baptism is needed and is necessary. Grace as you have mentioned, can be divided into two types, Sanctifying Grace and Actual Grace. We can only gain the sanctifying grace from the sacrament of the church, such as Baptism and Confession. No doubt, the receiving of Acutal Grace does not require a man to be in the state of Sanctifying grace.

"Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus", "Ubi Petrus Ibi Ecclesia".

Those who do not know God, i.e. they have never heard about any thing about the True God, can go to heaven if they lived according to the light of conscience. But for those who have heard about God and did not believe in Him, there should not be any chance for them to go to heaven because they rejected the guidiance of the light of conscience which eventually lead them to the true God and the one true Church.

And for those protestant, I don't believe their so-called Baptism is valid. When we consider the validity of sacrament, we consider its form, matter intention. Appearently, the form and matter are valid in their so-called Baptism because they used pure water and correctly announced "ego te baptizo in nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti, Amen". But I believe their intention is not valid, because they are not tending to excercise the will of the church. As if they want to do so, they are still not practicing the intention of the one True Church.

And for those Buddhists and anything else, the above first situation can still be applied. Their salvation is depending on if they have ever heard about the Truth of God and if they followed the light of conscience.

The church cannot contradict its own teaching. Vantican II cannot contradict the previous Councils.
Thus we have to distinguish which one is right and which one is wrong.

On the other hand, what do you think about the few articles written by 尹雅白 on KKP?
I believe this is exactly a trap! A dangerous trap for those who cannot distinguish the REAL teaching of the church.
How can he use the personal feeling of the pope and see them as an official standing of the church? Nonsense! I still believe that the pope can be wrong when he is not saying things "ex cathedra" on the topic of faith and morals.

Calvin

Edward 說...

Dear Calvin,

也許我們可以重溫以往在論盡那邊的一些相關討論

隨從良心的指引本身,不一定表示該良心就一定運作正常(即你所說的:引領一個人走向天主及教會)。教會訓導(不論梵二前後)在這事宜上所針對的,就是指一個被錯誤引導的良心(所謂的受「不可克服的無知」所影響),亦有可能被天主用作施恩施救的平台。

小弟比較傾向於認為,「聽從良心指引」為一個外教徒的得救來說,固然是相當重要的條件,但它本身亦不是得救的「充份」條件。這個正直的外教徒,亦需要天主恩寵的進一步幫助,而至於「信德」的境界--就是這種信德,促使他加入諸聖共融的行列--但天主實際上怎樣做,我們卻不知道。

梵二的訓導,當然不可以和以往的教會訓導相衝突。這是「hermeneutic of continuity」嘛!不過,小弟分析兩者的著眼點,不是在於找出他們之間的「衝突」和「矛盾」,而是著眼於應將它們如何解釋、才不至於產生衝突和矛盾。這不是「孰是孰非」的問題,而是「他們兩者,如何都是對的」的問題。

至於其他基督宗派弟兄們的洗禮屬於有效與否,最好還是聽從「阿公」的定斷吧!

至於尹神父最近那篇文章,小弟亦正考慮是否值得撰寫一篇回應。相信你都知啦,讀了數期,似乎還未見他回應本人先前在《慎防道聽塗說》一文中所提出的論點,再爭論下去,恐怕變成「各說各話」也說不定呢。

祝你考試成功,為你祈禱啊!

Edward

Calvin 說...

Dear Edward,

I really can't sustain that guy uses His Holiness' personal view as the offical standing of the church.
Terrible.
Did he receive any training from the seminary?

Calvin

Edward 說...

Dear Calvin,

It is certainly a terrible thing to confuse the personal view of the Pope with the official teaching of the Church.

Concerning Medjugorje, I don't think either JPII or B16 has ever been on their side. You know, there is much wishful thinking and spiritual blindness involved in these phenomena. They classically cannot be convinced.

Calvin 說...

Dear Edward,

You know, Medjugorje is all about $$$$$$$$$$.

Those so-called witnesses own 2 car parks and a tennis court at home!

It would be great if you can deliver the true catholic view on this matter to the KKP. I always refer to Michael Davies. Check this out : http://www.mdaviesonmedj.com/

Moreover, do you know if the bishop is aware of this matter or not? Two priests of the Diocese of Hong Kong are going to lead two "teams" to go to Medjugorje in a short time! They are from the Church of Announciation in Tsuen Wan.

Disaster!

Calvin

匿名 說...

親愛的Calvin主內弟兄,
你說得很對,默主哥耶是一個金礦。我下載了Michael Davies’ Online Book,亦將全本書看完,亦在很多提倡默主哥耶的網站中,看到對已去世的Michael Davies所作出的批評。在我所屬的堂區內,默主哥耶朝拜者已成為一股可以左右堂區運作的勢力。他們每星期有祈禱及分享,亦將默主哥耶聖母(Gospa-Our Lady of Medugorje) 全天候「供奉」在祭台。每當教友向聖體龕下跪朝拜時,也在同時向默主哥耶聖母下跪。每當神父在彌撒奉香時,默主哥耶聖母亦能同玷這敬禮。難怪外教人叫我們天主教為拜聖母教。教會說這不是朝拜,只是為表達我們對聖母之敬慕。我才疏學淺,對教理及聖經一知半解,雖已入教近半世紀,但觀乎那羣默主哥耶信奉者的行為,實弄不清朝拜及敬慕的分別。
有些神職人員,自從免費朝聖於默主哥耶後,有如脫胎換骨,將這些「神視者」看作神明。並公然承認得到當地神父贈默主哥耶唸珠,授予覆手冶癒的「功力」,其神奇尤如在看武俠小說。更甚的是有神職人員,自創網站,並在網站中大量傳送默主哥耶訊息,以「福傳」作大前提,實則是為默主哥耶作宣傳。
好了,大發完一輪謬論,心情好了一些,是時候向天主懺悔了!
主佑
一個才疏學淺的老教友

Ming 說...

對不起。我也是才疏學淺的人。不過,體會過天主在默主歌耶所賜的恩寵後,我只好在信仰上再出發。讀夜神去,打開自已,接受聖神。有朝聖者可能過了「火位」,但不代表這不是天主所賜的「金礦」。歡迎討論。

Edward 說...

Ming,

很高興聽到您報讀夜神的消息。

其實在這條目之下討論默主哥耶問題,顯然有點離題了。相信在這網誌之內,您可知悉小弟對此事宜的看法和立場。歡迎您在抽空閱讀之後,留下寶貴意見。

主祐!

Edward