2009年5月3日星期日

特倫多會議文獻

今個早上,在家中一頁一頁地翻閱了特倫多大公會議的文獻。

有趣。

所謂太陽之下無新事。其實現時教會所面對的問題和挑戰,不少都有很多歷史淵源。我們面對問題,除了因時制宜、就地除材外,亦不可以忽略當中跨越時空的幅度。

譬如:教區禮儀委員會近期收到了一些神長們在彌撒中「取消」送聖血做法的報告。從禮儀角度而言,兼形共融(兼領聖體聖血)固然在標記上更加理想、更加「圓滿」,但的確神長們亦有他們實際牧民上的憂慮和保留。

但討論「禮儀」問題,則應切忌輕易地將它們提昇至「信理」或「教義」的層次。例如在香港的情況,我寧可作出「以現時典型堂區生活而言,香港教區的天主教教友,在主日彌撒中期望兼領聖體聖血,是合理的」的「主張」,而不將話說成:「既然主耶穌叫我們『拿去吃』和『拿去飲』,則在彌撒中取消分送聖血,是對天主旨意的一種抗拒」。

在釋經和神學思考上,我們應慎防將聖經的「片言隻語」當作武器,去攻擊他人的合理論點--除非我們能肯定該些經文,在教會的信理、神學、禮儀和靈修歷史中,是否的確有此一「妙用」。否則傷害教會團體內的「和氣」事小,損害信德的內容事大。事關按照特倫多大公會議(第廿一期會議)曾隆重地定斷:

誰若主張:「基於天主的訓戒或得救的必要性,所有及每位基督信徒均須領受至聖感恩聖事的兩種形式(即:兼領聖體聖血)」,當受絕罰。

Si quis dixerit, ex Dei praecepto vel ex necessitate salutis omnes et singulos christifideles utramque speciem sanctissimi eucharistiae sacramenti sumere debere: anathema sit.

近日因著社會大眾對豬流感的憂慮,教區指示暫時取消「口領」共融聖事的做法,則是使用了以下神權:

本會議申明:教會內恆常有此能力,於聖事的分施中,執其實質,而為領聖事者的本人利益、對聖事的虔敬、及就時地之異處,而決斷較適宜者,並予以規定或變通。

Praeterea declarat, hanc potestatem perpetuo in ecclesia fuisse, ut in sacramentorum dispensatione, salva illorum substantia, ea statueret vel mutaret, quae suscipientium utilitati seu ipsorum sacramentorum venerationi, pro rerum, temporum et locorum varietate, magis expedire iudicaret.

此外,以往問題所提出的挑戰,往往亦是解決現今問題的基礎。例如第廿二期會議的法令:

To avoid irreverence, each bishop [...] should keep out of their churches the kind of music in which a base and suggestive element is introduced into the organ playing or singing, and similarly all worldly activities, empty and secular conversation, walking about, noises and cries, so that the house of God may truly be called and seen to be a house of prayer.

Finally, to leave no room for superstition, they are to ensure by edict with accompanying penalties that priests do not celebrate other than the proper times, nor use in the celebration of Mass rites or ceremonies and prayers other than those approved by the Church and traditional from long and praiseworthy usage. They should banish from the church any idea of a particular number of Masses and candles which derives more from the cult of superstition than from true religion, and teach the people the nature and source of the very precious and heavenly effect of this most holy sacrifice. Let them also instruct their people to attend their parish churches frequently, at least on Sundays and greater feasts [...].

不知現時香港,剩下多少本《歷屆大公會議文獻》呢?

5 則留言:

John Eric Lai 說...

Edward,

Where can I buy it?

Eric

彌額爾 說...

愛德華兄,小弟亦甚有興趣購買一本。

Edward 說...

兩位弟兄:

小弟家中的那套,乃《Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils》,分兩大冊出版。崇基圖書館應有一套,而亞馬遜書店亦有售。

匿名 說...

愛德華兄:

不知那兩位弟兄是否就讀於中大,我想各間神學院的圖書館是必然有該兩本書的.
我也想過買的,但確實不便宜.平常用DS已很夠.
當然,查看該些大公會議的法規確是很有趣.有很多當時法規禁止的事,我們現在卻照做如儀.又可看到大公會議主議和教宗無上權威主義之間的角力.

靚仔

Edward 說...

靚仔兄:

講真,小弟自高中時代,就已讀過一次DS。

數年前得窺歷屆大公會議的文獻,則往往將焦點放在DS所未有收錄的條文。的確十分精彩呢!